The status and working conditions of artists and cultural and creative professionals
This study explores the status and the working conditions of artists and creative professionals. This includes examination of the career paths of artists and cultural and creative professionals, including entrepreneurship, nature of income, and influence of the market, access to finance, social security and cross-border mobility. Working conditions of artists and CCS professionals is understood in a larger sense, including artistic freedom/restrictions to creation, the aspect of working conditions of disadvantaged groups, and the specific working conditions of young people (in particular with view to the gig/platform economy, precariousness due to project-oriented jobs and self-employment). The study also considers aspects of creative professions as hidden unemployment (creative entrepreneur not out of free will but due to the impossibility to get another job and part-time employment traps for women with children, etc.), as well as the physical places and conditions where work of artists and CCS professionals takes place.
It should be mentioned that some of the work conducted in the context of this study took place during the COVID-19 pandemic.
This study is carried out by the European Expert Network on Culture and Audiovisual (EENCA) for the Directorate-General for Education, Youth, Sport and Culture (DG EAC) of the European Commission. The New European Agenda for Culture adopted by the European Commission in May 2018 has three strategic objectives with social, economic and external dimensions. One of the concrete actions is to support Member States in ensuring fair remuneration for artists and creators through general and sector-specific dialogues. The Council Work Plan for Culture 2019-2022 identifies an ‘ecosystem supporting artists, cultural and creative professionals and European content’ as one of the five main priorities for European cooperation in cultural policy-making. Within this priority theme, the Work Plan provides for a study followed by an OMC group (Open Method of Coordination) on the status and working conditions of artists and cultural and creative professionals.
The final report, executive summary and the conclusions and recommendations can be downloaded using the links below: